外汇管理局:外汇储备不能无偿分配使用

时间:2021-06-12 02:10 阅读:

  昨天,国家外汇管理局为外汇储备的分配等热点问题提供了答案。外管局说:外汇储备不同于财政资金。不能免费使用,如果免费分配,会带来通胀压力。同时, 中国不追求大规模外汇储备。同时鼓励私人持有和投资外汇,实现“隐藏式汇款”。

  无偿使用会带来通货膨胀压力

  根据国家外汇管理局的说法,企业和个人通过商业银行买卖外汇,例如, 商业银行在银行间市场上出售净买入外汇,被中央银行收购后, 它成为外汇储备。中央银行在购买外汇时向外汇持有人支付了相应的人民币。如,企业向外国客户出售商品或接受外国投资,取得对方支付的外汇,与商业银行结算成人民币,然后在中国使用。在结算过程中,公司向商业银行出售外汇,以汇率获取人民币资金,其外汇资产已转换为人民币资产。个人向银行出售外汇以获取人民币的过程与此类似。

  商业银行向公司和个人购买外汇后,为了外汇资产和负债分配的需要,在各种业务窗口中将大部分外汇卖给企业和个人,并把交易网后的多余外汇卖给中央银行,中央银行支付相应的人民币以获得外汇,形成国家的外汇储备。

  国家外汇管理局指出,在形成外汇储备时,企业, 个人, 而且银行不会免费将外汇交给国家。卖到国内等于人民币,这显然不同于税收和财政收入。中央银行有获取外汇的成本。所以, 它不能用于免费分发。如自由分配和使用会影响中国人民银行资产负债表的余额。并带来通货膨胀压力,影响经济和金融稳定。其次,外汇储备是形式上的外汇,主要用于外部付款,如果在国内使用, 它将再次转换为人民币。再次增加货币投放,加剧了国内流动性过剩的矛盾。

  外部储备越多, 更好

  国家外汇管理局昨天表示,更多的外部储备, 更好,我国不追求大规模外汇储备,它也不追求长期国际收支盈余,我国的经常项目和资本项目多年来一直保持盈余,外汇储备增加是国际支付“双顺差”的客观结果。反映了我国经济的长期稳定增长。中国是发展中国家即使以传统的中等规模指标衡量,还必须维持一定规模的外部储备。充足的外汇储备也是信心的保证。金融危机证明,足够的外汇储备提高了我国应对危机的能力。

  数据显示截至2009年底,我国的外部金融资产3。46万亿美元,它远低于欧美等国家。

  鼓励公司和人民举行外汇交易

  对于外部存储问题,国家外汇管理局承认,目前, 大多数外汇资产主要集中在政府手中。私人外汇基金储备有限。官方外汇储备占所有外国资产的2/3,日本的比率仅为1/6。Therefore, enterprises and people are encouraged to hold and invest in foreign exchange,Realize the diversification of wealth currencies,Achieve "Hidden Remittance in the People".But this requires a process,Such as providing more foreign exchange investment channels.

  SAFE believes thatAs the country's economy develops,Increase in income,The demand for diversified asset allocation of enterprises and ordinary people will definitely increase.Provide more foreign exchange investment channels and products,And really let the people feel that holding foreign exchange can bring benefits,At that timeIt will greatly ease the pressure on foreign exchange to concentrate on the country.

  In addition, SAFE pointed out thatTo improve the transparency of foreign exchange reserve information, we must be cautious and steady.Can't be rushed.my country's foreign exchange reserves are large,Play a pivotal role in the international financial market,Disclose the specific investment situation,May cause market turbulence,It may also affect the effective development of our investment activities.

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  China's foreign reserves is a decentralized currency structure combination

  China's foreign reserves include major currencies such as the U.S. dollar, euro, and yen.There are also currencies of emerging market countries,It is a decentralized currency structure combination.The currency structure is dynamically adjusted,Factors such as market capacity, liquidity, currency risk-return characteristics and development trends must be considered,And according to economic and market trends and investment needs,Continuously optimize.

  The International Monetary Fund (IMF) released a report this week showing thatCentral banks around the world cut their euro and dollar reserves in the first quarter.The share of the euro in the “allocated” category has increased from 27 in the fourth quarter of last year.3% dropped to 27.19%,USD 61.54%,Slightly lower than 62 in the fourth quarter of last year.14%.

  The foreign debt balance at the end of March was 443.2 billion US dollars

  The SAFE announced yesterday the basic situation of my country's foreign debt in the first quarter.As of the end of March this year,The balance of my country's foreign debt is 4432.US$3.6 billion (excluding Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan),Among them, the registered foreign debt balance is 2764。3.6 billion US dollars,Trade credit balance is 166.8 billion U.S. dollars.

  Short-term foreign debt accounts for a relatively large proportion of foreign debt.The balance of medium and long-term foreign debt (based on remaining maturity) is 1,670.$3.4 billion,Accounted for 37.69%Short-term foreign debt 2762.USD 0.2 billion,Accounted for 62.32%.Previous data from SAFE showed thatAs of the end of 2009,my country's short-term foreign debt balance is 2592.$ 5。9 billion,Accounted for 60.48%,And it rose to 62 in the first quarter of this year.32%,这是短期外债上升的连续第四个季度。

  根据近年来的经验,外资流入较多的地区,短期外债的比例趋于增加。

  刘玉慧 社会科学院金融研究所中国经济评估中心主任, 说,短期外债比例的增加可能来自两个方面:贸易活动的增加和热钱的流入。从第一季度的情况来看,短期外债比例的上升与跨境资本流动更多相关。但是最近一季的情况可能会改变。贸易活动将在第二季度升温。

  从债务人的类型来看,在已登记的外债余额中,国务院各部委借用的主权债务余额为38美元。40亿。占13。9%,中国金融机构的债务余额为986。$ 5。50亿占35。69%,外商投资企业债务余额940。$ 1。50亿占34。01%。

  从货币结构的角度来看,美元债务占70%,增加2。24个百分点; 日元债务占11。04%与上一年末相比减少了0。85个百分点; 欧元债务占5。49%,与上一年末相比减少了0。89个百分点; 其他债务包括特别提款权, 港元, 等等。,总比例13。47%与上一年末相比减少了0。5个百分点。

  这次, 国家外汇管理局还宣布了今年一月至三月新借的中长期外债余额。第一季度我国新借的中长期外债81。$5.1十亿,同比增长43。4.70亿美元。